Gordon Charles Naley

Private Gordon Naley, AIF, in full military uniform.

Rank

Private

Roll title

16th Battalion, AIF

Convoy ship

HMAT Ceramic

‘Mundrabilla’ Station, Western Australia, where Naley spent his early life.

Courtesy of Michael Laing

Gordon Naley was born in the scrub on Mundrabilla Station in the Eucla district of the Nullarbor in Western Australia on 20 January 1884. His mother was a unnamed local Yirkla (Eucla) Mirning Aboriginal woman and his father was William, one of Mundrabilla's white station owners. Naley was raised by his Aboriginal mother in early life but was later unofficially adopted by Ellen McGill, the second wife of station owner William Stuart McGill.  He spent his childhood and young adult years living and working as a station hand, drover, shearer and horse breaker in the Eucla district, throughout the Nullarbor, his traditional lands, and in the Western Australian Goldfields.

Naley's use of the bicycle as an occasional means of transport was useful training for the competitive races in which he participated — including a handicap race in Coolgardie in December 1903, which he won.

The McGills sold Mundrabilla in 1903 and moved to Heidelberg, Victoria, the address to which Naley’s army correspondence was sent until he married in 1919. After the McGills' departure he worked along the Murray River in South Australia and spent a short time at the eastern end of the Nullarbor prior to the war, where he befriended the Davis family, originally from England, who lived at Bookabie near Fowlers Bay.

Naley joined the AIF on 17 September 1914, less than seven weeks after the outbreak of war. He enlisted at Morphettville in South Australia switching his Christian names and reducing his age as a way of masking his Aboriginal identity. Interestingly, his attestation paper records his birthplace as Mintaro Station, near Eucla, and not Mundrabilla. Mundrabilla station was recorded as also being known as Mandra Bellae or Muntra Billa in earlier days, and was called Mundra or Muntra Station for short. It is easy to imagine that in the bustle of the recruitment room Naley’s pronunciation of Mundra Station or Muntra Station was misheard and recorded as Mintaro, thus hiding another clue to his Aboriginality at a time when Aboriginal men were excluded from the AIF. 

Ellen McGill, was recorded as his next of kin. Other than a scar on the right side of his abdomen, caused by a burn as a child, the ‘27-year-old’ was declared fit. He was appointed to the Western & South Australian raised H Company, 16th Battalion of the 4th Brigade. After initial training at Morphettville, Private Naley (later to become Corporal Naley) decamped to the muddy-when-wet, dusty-when-dry, flat expanse at Broadmeadows in Victoria that was the assembly point for the 4th Brigade. 

In November 1914, the Western Australian contingent of the 16th Battalion joined those assembled at Broadmeadows to undertake advanced training. 

Ellen Angel McGill (née Fairweather) of Mundrabilla Station.

Courtesy of Michael Laing

H Company, 16th Battalion, December 1914.

Courtesy of the Australian War Memorial DAX2617

HMAT Ceramic.

Courtesy of the Australian War Memorial PB0284A

On 17 December, the 16th Battalion marched through Melbourne on review before the Governor-General, and less than a week later boarded HMAT Ceramic bound for Egypt via King George Sound with the Second Convoy.

After a month-long, uneventful voyage, Ceramic anchored at Aden before sailing though the Suez Canal and onwards to Port Said and finally, Alexandria. The men travelled by train to Heliopolis where they camped near the 1st Australian Light Horse Brigade and New Zealand Brigade (the New Zealand and Australian Division), coming under the command of Major General Godley. A re-grouping of the 16th Battalion’s companies created a double company structure and Naley’s H Company merged with E Company becoming D Company. For the next two months training was intermingled with leave, allowing the troops to experience the sights, sounds and smells of Egypt.

Troops waiting to board HMAT Ceramic, Melbourne, December 1914.

Courtesy of the Australian War Memorial J00340

Part of the camp at Heliopolis, Egypt, 1915.

Courtesy of the Australian War Memorial H02283

View of Monash Gully.

Courtesy of the Australian War Memorial G00976

The 16th left Cairo for Alexandria on 11 April. The battalion was split and Naley’s D Company embarked on Haida Pascha, a captured and converted German cargo ship. Leaving Alexandria that day, the 16th numbered 821 men, along with 89 horses. They proceeded to Lemnos in the Aegean Sea where the troops spent three days practising landing from the ship’s boats. On 23 April 1915, the General Routine Order and a message from the King were received. The following day the last of the field equipment was issued. Gallipoli awaited.

All that could be seen as Haida Pascha approached the Gallipoli shoreline around 4 pm on 25 April was a thick haze of blue smoke and flashes from the big guns of the battleships and destroyers pounding the shore. The 16th went ashore around 5 pm and were ordered to the summit of Pope’s Hill at the top of Monash Valley. Over the next two days the 16th fought to maintain their position against determined Ottoman attacks. They were relieved by the 15th Battalion on 30 April, however snipers continued to harass them in the rest camp lower down Monash Valley, inflicting further casualties.

A week later the battalion was ordered to assault and entrench a position at Quinn’s Post, which became the ‘storm centre of Anzac’ for the remainder of the month. On 24 May, Naley was reported to be suffering from enteric fever (typhoid). He was hospitalised in Malta and declared unfit for service for two months. A 2 June entry on Naley’s service casualty form reports him as wounded and dangerously ill, though there is no record of a wound.

Gordon Charles Naley convalescing (bottom right).

Courtesy of Michael Laing

Unidentified members of a 16th Battalion raiding party, Hébuterne, April 1918.

Courtesy of the Australian War Memorial A00816

Naley was transferred from Malta to a military hospital in Fulham, London, in early September 1915 and declared ‘out of danger’ on 10 September. His convalescence extended to July 1916 and it is likely that this is when he first met Cecilia Karsh, the daughter of a local Fulham baker whom he would later marry. Meanwhile his unit had been evacuated from Gallipoli to Egypt and redeployed to the Armentières sector frontline in northern France.

In late June 1916, Naley entrained from Weymouth to Salisbury, embarking for France on 26 July 1916. His initial six weeks in France was spent with the 4th Training Battalion before he marched out from the 4th Division base depot in Etaples, rejoining the 16th Battalion on 19 August 1916. He had avoided the battalion’s first experience of heavy shellfire at Tara Gulley on 4 August and their subsequent attack on Circular Trench between Pozières and Mouquet Farm a week later. However, he found himself on the front line in the muddy, rain-soaked trenches approaching Mouquet Farm.

The attack on Mouquet Farm was launched at 10.56 pm on 29 August following an artillery barrage that came down ‘like a clap of thunder’. The 16th took all their objectives. However, the initial artillery barrage had failed to destroy all the German dugouts and many of their occupants remained unharmed. They had also been reinforced via underground tunnels. Following a severe bombardment, the Germans counter-attacked the 16th from both the front and the rear. To compound the Australians’ problems, mud had rendered many of their rifles and Lewis guns useless. The 16th was forced to withdraw through enemy positions to their original front line. The battalion’s losses were considerable and some of the company were taken prisoner. On the morning of 31 August a half-hour truce was negotiated so that the casualties who had not been recovered during the fighting could be collected. Two days later the battalion was relieved and the weary men made an arduous withdrawal back to their billets.

Over the next six months the 16th Battalion settled into the monotony of life in the trenches as they shifted around northern France, moving in and out of the front line. Routine maintenance tasks such as improving and cleaning trenches and camps, repairing roads and general fatigues, and participation in the occasional sporting competition was the norm. This was interspersed with relieving other battalions in the front and support lines. The ever-present threat of gas made carrying a box respirator compulsory. Naley’s family have long believed that, even with this precaution, Naley suffered the effects of gas during this time. 

In early April 1917, an attack in the Bullecourt sector was proposed following the German withdrawal to the Hindenburg Line and recent British successes near Arras. There was the promise of tank support and a heavy artillery bombardment to cut the wire. The battalion moved to their jumping-off positions in the early morning of 11 April 1917. Six tanks had been allocated and their first objective was to break down the wire sufficiently to allow the infantry to cross. However, by the time the 16th went over the top at 4.45 am only three tanks had arrived, the rest having broken down or become bogged. The promised heavy artillery was also cancelled because it was decided that tanks would provide artillery support. With key parts of the plan failing, the men pushed on and fought their way, under fierce machine-gun fire, to their planned objectives.

The battalion suffered heavy casualties in reaching their objective and immediately came under sustained grenade attack, suffering further casualties. A runner was dispatched with the message that the first objective had been reached. Their second objective lay ahead but they soon discovered that the wire was still intact. The second line of German trench was taken, but with heavy losses. The battalion’s position was precarious and constant machine-gun fire made movement above ground virtually impossible. At 8 am a S.O.S. signal was made and repeated throughout the morning without response from the artillery due to exaggerated reports of Australian success and the misguided belief that the Australians were in the firing area.

A heavy German counter-attack was forming from the front and flanks making communication with headquarters impossible, and very few of the message runners made it through. Based on the evidence mentioned earlier of the patch sewn onto Naley’s uniform, it is possible that he may have been one of the runners dispatched during the battle. 

At 11.45 am, after more than three hours of fierce resistance, and with 75 per cent of the battalion wounded, captured or killed, the left flank gave way and the survivors withdrew as best they could back to their original position. Many men were killed by their own machine-guns while withdrawing. During the fighting, Naley was wounded in the left hip and became one of the many Australians captured. Of the 3,000 men of the 4th Brigade that were engaged at Bullecourt 2,339 were captured, wounded or killed. It was the heaviest loss in a single engagement by an Australian brigade.

Naley’s service record contains two documents recording his capture, and the information varies on each. On the first undated form (in English) he is listed as a lance corporal, born on 20 January 1884, captured at ‘Reincourt’ [sic] and being wounded in the left hip by shrapnel. The second form (in German), completed on 23 July 1917, states that he was born in 1878 and captured at Bapaume; it states that he was not wounded, and that he was initially sent to Limburg prisoner-of-war camp. A later entry records his location as Zerbst, further east than Limburg and closer to Berlin. Little is known about Naley’s time in the prisoner-of-war camps, though an extract from a postcard he sent home in February 1918 states, ‘This leaves me well. Parcels arriving fairly well.’

The 16th Battalion marching in full kit, 28 February 1917. Between 11 February and 17 March 1917, the battalion was based at Albury camp near Bazentin, France, assisting in road and railway repairs, and camp improvements.

Courtesy of the Australian War Memorial E00226

Page of Naley’s service record detailing his deployment on the Western Front.

Courtesy of the National Archives of Australia: B2455, NALEY CHARLES GORDON

Page of Naley’s service record showing his prisoner-of-war status.

Courtesy of the National Archives of Australia: B2455, NALEY CHARLES GORDON

Naley wearing his prisoner-of-war uniform.

Courtesy of Michael Laing

German notification of Naley’s prisoner-of-war status

Courtesy of the National Archives of Australia: B2455, NALEY CHARLES GORDON

View of Limburg prisoner-of-war camp, where Naley was imprisoned until the end of the war.

Courtesy of the Hessen State Office 135-038

Gordon Naley and Cecilia Karsh were married on 26 January 1919 at the United Methodist Church, Fulham, London.

Courtesy of Michael Laing

Naley spent the remainder of the war as a prisoner of war and arrived back in England on 6 January 1919. Two weeks later, he married Cecilia Karsh in the Methodist Church at Fulham, London. On the wedding certificate Naley’s occupation was listed as a ‘Farmer’ and his bride as ‘Baker’s assistant’. Naley spent a further period in hospital between March and April 1919, and on 1 April 1919 made a Statutory Declaration affirming his correct Christian names to be Gordon Charles. The couple left for Australia on 4 June 1919, and he was discharged from the AIF as a corporal on 21 September 1919 at Keswick, South Australia.

Naley and Cecilia initially went to ‘Boggy Flat’, now known as Taylorville, near Morgan on the Murray River. They then moved to Winkie, in the Riverland, South Australia, to take up a soldier-settler land grant. They had six children but, sadly, their first child died at birth. The back corner of their block adjoined the back corner of the settlement block of Arthur Davis of the Davis family who were Naley's friends from Bookabie. Arthur and Gordon Naley were best friends and were known to reminisce for hours on past times spent on the Nullarbor and West Coast. Naley worked his land and continued to break in horses for other settlers. He participated in local sporting activities, establishing a reputation as a sound cricketer. He maintained his Mirning links and Aboriginal learning. He was known by locals to hunt rabbits using a stick like a boomerang or a throwing stick with great success.

Naley battled health issues, probably a result of having been gassed in France, and passed away from respiratory complications in the veterans’ hospital at Myrtle Bank in South Australia on 28 August 1928 aged 44. Naley was buried in the AIF section of Adelaide’s West Terrace cemetery.

References

Australian War Memorial, First World War Embarkation Rolls – Gordon Charles Naley

Australian War Memorial, Red Cross Wounded and Missing - Gordon Charles Naley

Gill, I 2008, Bloody Angle Bullecourt & Beyond: 16th Battalion A.I.F. 1914-19, Ian Gill, Perth

Longmore, C Captain 2007, The Old Sixteenth: Being a record of the 16th Battalion, A.I.F., during the Great War, 1914-1918, Hesperian Press, Carlisle

National Archives of Australia: Australian Imperial Force, Base Records Office; B2455, Charles Gordon Naley First Australian Imperial Force personnel dossier, 1914-1920; NALEY CHARLES GORDON, 1914-1920

The AIF Project 2014, Charles Gordon NALEY, viewed 8 September 2014, <https://www.aif.adfa.edu.au/showPerson?pid=232520>

nd 2013, South Australian Aboriginal soldiers of the First World War: 1310 Corporal Gordon Charles Naley of Mundrabilla Station, viewed 8 September 2014, <http://aboriginalww1veteransofsouthaustralia.blogspot.com.au/2011/09/1310-private-gordon-charles-naley-of.html>

 

 

The statutory declaration Naley made regarding his correct name.

Courtesy of the National Archives of Australia: B2455, NALEY CHARLES GORDON

Naley’s discharge papers showing his final rank of corporal.

Courtesy of Michael Laing

Anonymous

For your service and contribution to our future, we thank you.

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martin

Lest we forget.

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Alexandra

Very brave man.

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marlene

What a true ANZAC!

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Olivia

I am sorry that you got taken prisoner.

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Anonymous

Thank you Mr Naley, for defending our country, despite the cost of possible perishment. Just to say I am very grateful for all the risks you took for us.

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kyle

Thank you for your sacrifice to our country, although you did not deserve to die.

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Anonymous

Thank you for your sacrifice. May we live our lives for others just as you did. LEST WE FORGET.

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Anonymous

Thank you for fighting for our country.

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Anonymous

Hello Private Gordon Naley, You have fought well in this terrible war. I hope you survive in this war.

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Ashleigh

I would like to say thank you to you for fighting to give us freedom. Your sacrifice has not gone unnoticed. You were so brave. Ashleigh.

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CAROLYN

LEST WE FORGET.

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les

Thank you for your service for our country.

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Alison

Your valuable contribution is acknowledged.

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Anonymous

Good to see Aboriginal soldiers recognised.

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lauchlan

Peace.

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Anonymous

Thank you for your service.

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Anonymous

Thank you for the life we now enjoy.

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Bobby Arnold

Such a brave man didn't deserve to die. Thank you for giving your blood, sweat and tears for this country. RIP.

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milana

Thank you for fighting for us. Love from Milana.

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DANI

ENORMOUS RESPECT yet treated badly by your own country.

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ethan a

Hope that you made your family proud.

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Anonymous

Thank you for fighting for us.

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Ben

Thank you, Private Gordon Naley.

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Bella

THANK YOU FOR SAVING OUR COUNTRY AND OUR PEOPLE. I'M SO GLAD THAT YOU SURVIVED THE WAR. YOU WERE A VERY BRAVE YOUNG MAN. XX

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Anonymous

THANK YOU FOR SAVING US AND CONGRATULATIONS ON SURVIVING THE WAR.

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Anonymous

THANK YOU FOR SAVING US AND CONGRATULATIONS ON SURVIVING THE WAR.

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Anonymous

Thanks for saving us.

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juvy

Thanks for your service to our country. I hope you rest in peace.

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Nina

I hope you came back from war.

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Molly

Thank you for fighting in the war.

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Frank

So brave. Fought with my POP. May God bless you.

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Frank

So brave. Fought with my POP. May God bless you.

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Anonymous

Thank you for doing your best. Without you, who knows what would have happend so thank you.

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Anonymous

Thank you for fighting and risking your life for us.

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Anonymous

Thank you for your service. We will never be able to repay the sacrifices of those who died for our freedom.

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allira

Even though you're gone, you will always be remembered thanks to this Museum. Thanks for your service in the war.

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Anonymous

I like how all stories make sense. You're one of my favorite soldiers.

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KEZIAH WALL

I AM VERY HAPPY YOU SURVIVED. THANK YOU FOR SAVING US.

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Anonymous

I'm very happy you survived in the war. Thank you for saving us.

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Anonymous

Thank you for facing all that.

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Anonymous

Thank you for being a great soldier and fighting for Australia and making Australia the way it is today.

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Anonymous

I'm so relieved you made it home and you had children and a good life. Thank you for your bravery, we will never forget.

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Lesley

I am so pleased you survived and returned to Australia the same day my father(who later served in the Military Police during the WW2)was born in Walkaway WA.

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Anonymous

I think that Gordon Naley was very brave and nice.

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Anonymous

Dear NALEY, Thank you for fighting in the war for us. Your story is very inspiring.

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diana

We are very proud of you and your effort in the war.

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Anonymous

Well done, mate.

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emily

Thank you for serving our country. You should be proud and we are proud of you - well done.

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Anonymous

Thank you for your service. GOD BLESS.

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